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Semi-arid regions in northern and eastern Kenya, are highly dynamic systems that experience changeable and sometimes extreme climates, adverse environmental change, and a relative insufficiency of natural resources. Historically, people living in these regions had livelihoods that were well-suited to these conditions. Today, however, many communities are showing increased vulnerability due to challenges such as political marginalisation, underdevelopment, poverty, inequality, unfair governance systems, maladaptive policies, and increasing population growth. Climate change is expected to exacerbate existing levels of vulnerability, as temperatures rise, rainfall decreases and seasonal climate patterns become more variable.

From 2014-2018, ASSAR’s East Africa team worked in Kenya and Ethiopia to better understand these existing and upcoming challenges. Made up of a team of researchers and practitioners from the changing social and environmental conditions interact in practice. We combined these analyses with activities at regional and national levels to generate transferable insights for policy and practice on the changing nature of vulnerability and response to environmental change. We hope that this detailed work can contribute to knowledge on how to enhance the ability of communities, local organisations and government to adapt to climate change in ways that minimise vulnerability and promote long-term resilience.

Key insights

Factors like gender, age, location, livelihood, and status intersect with social and economic characteristics like household composition, social capital, marital status, income, and educational attainment to determine people’s capacity to effectively respond to climate risks and impacts. Adaptation policies need to consider these intersecting factors explicitly to enable the most marginalised to adapt.

Although decentralisation has enabled local officials to respond to local needs flexibly and effectively, greater coordination between levels and sectors of government, as well as more resources, better alignment of planning and development cycles, and better provision of timely and relevant information, would further strengthen action on water governance and disaster risk management.

Conservancies have benefitted communities with improved governance, more livelihood opportunities, and enhanced social services. To continue to build resilience, further improvements are required to reduce tensions between communities within and outside conservancies, enable more sustainable and equitable approaches to natural resource management and livelihoods, and address ongoing problems associated with human-wildlife conflict.

Recognising that interventions will result in trade-offs, with some people winning and others losing, is important. Including affected populations more concretely in decisions about interventions will help to identify the main trade-offs, support more effective design and implementation of interventions, avoid unintended consequences – especially for the most vulnerable, and help to ensure that the needs of those typically excluded from decision making are heard and valued.

Click here for more detail, and ASSAR's specific recommendations for policy, practice, and research

Country partners and contact details

Kenya work in general:

Oliver Wasonga (, University of Nairobi
Roger Few (, University of East Anglia
Mark Tebboth (, University of East Anglia
Intra-household dynamics: Nitya Rao (, University of East Anglia
Governance for adaptation: Poshendra Satyal (, University of East Anglia
Conservancies: Staline Kibet (, University of Nairobi
  Oliver Wasonga (, University of Nairobi
Pasture scarcity: Oliver Wasonga (, University of Nairobi
Mark Tebboth (, University of East Anglia
Research into Use: Daniel Morchain (, Oxfam GB

Click here to view the regional team members

Related news stories

Adaptation is about people: a new ASSAR video

With a strong focus on understanding the factors that enhance or diminish people's vulnerability and wellbeing, and the responses they take to deal with both climatic and non-climatic stressors, ASSAR focused on the most marginalised.


Mark Tebboth, at the University of East Anglia, looks at how 'developmentspeak' can hamper communication in communities not used to international development jargon.

Drought and its interactions in East Africa

Research being undertaken by ASSAR's East Africa team is underlining the interconnected nature of environmental and social dynamics in semi-arid regions. Read more about it in this detailed report.

Why do we work in East Africa?

The semi-arid regions of East Africa are among the most food-insecure regions in the world. This flyer looks at how Ethiopia and Kenya are studying adaptation methods to climate change using three research areas.

Related outputs







Book chapter D’Souza, M., Rao, B. and Awashi, S. 2016 Community-driven vulnerability assessment and resilience building: Cases from development contexts. Multi-level climate change planning: Scale, capacity and the ability for local action. In: S. Moloney, H. Fuenfgeld and M. Granberg (eds.) Local Action on Climate Change. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 92-110.
Book chapter Shaibu, M. T., Alhassan, S. I., Avornyo, F. K., Lawson, E. T., Mensah, A. and Gordon, C. 2019 Perceptions and determinants of the adoption of indigenous strategies for adaptation to climate change: Evidence from smallholder livestock farmers in north-west Ghana. In: J. K. Kuwornu (ed.) Climate Change and Sub-Saharan Africa: The vulnerability and adaptation of food supply chain factors. Vernon Press, pp. 229-249.  
Brochure/flyer ASSAR 2016 ASSAR adaptation puzzle. [Puzzle]   Brochure
Brochure/flyer ASSAR 2016 Why do we work in East Africa? [Flyer]    
Brochure/flyer Basu, R. and Morchain, D. 2017 On a road trip to find common ground: Can the goals of the private sector be compatible with sustainable development? [Comic]    
Brochure/flyer D’Souza, M. and Misquitta, K. 2018 From me to we...from mine to ours! A story of how motivation changes people’s perceptions and drives community action. [Story of Change]    
Infographic ASSAR 2017 Working towards more sustainable and equitable access to pasture in Kenya’s drylands.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Challenging assumptions about gender and climate adaptation.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Dreaming of a better life: Let’s recognise and value people’s changing aspirations.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Gender is one of many factors that influence how we are impacted by and respond to climate change.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Household relationships help determine whether and how we can – or can’t – respond to pressures.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 In semi-arid Kenya, gender and household relationships shape how we are impacted by and respond to climate change.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 In semi-arid regions, women are not necessarily victims or powerless: They are often diversifying their livelihoods and increasing their agency.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Multiscale governance: The paradox of top-down policy design.   French infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Sometimes our interventions can lead to unintended consequences: A well does not always lead to wellbeing.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 What global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for Kenya.    
Information brief Adiku, P. and Khan, A. 2018 Migration in climate change hotspots: Opportunities and challenges for adaptation. Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Information brief ASSAR 2015 East Africa regional diagnostic study: Report summary.    
Information brief ASSAR 2015 Planning for climate change in the semi-arid regions of East Africa.    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 How can we better understand and manage the impacts of droughts?    
Information brief ASSAR 2017 Promoting effective and sustained adaptation in East Africa.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Adapting to change in the semi-arid regions of northern Kenya: ASSAR’s key findings.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Do conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of communities? Perspectives from ASSAR’s work in Kenya.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 The gendered challenges of food security: Stories and lessons from ASSAR.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 What will global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C above pre-industrial levels mean for semi-arid regions?    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Women, work and adaptive capacity.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 A focus on wellbeing can link adaptation to outcomes that matter to people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Adaptation is about people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Does villagisation enhance the adaptive capacity of pastoralist communities? Perspectives from ASSAR's work in Ethiopia.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 What global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for Kenya.    
Information brief Bosworth, B., Hegga, S. and Ziervogel, G. 2018 When participation is not enough: Lessons from decentralised water governance in Namibia.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Climate adaptation policy.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Understanding vulnerabilities using a hotspot approach. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA)  
Information brief Few, R. 2017 Drought does not work alone.    
Information brief Few, R., Singh, C., Spear, D., Davies, J., Tebboth, M. G. L., Sidibe, A, Mensah, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. 2018 When adaptation barriers and enablers intersect: Key considerations for adaptation planning drawn from ASSAR’s findings.    
Information brief Lumosi, C. and McGahey, D. 2016 Communicating climate change for adaptation: Challenges, successes and future priorities.    
Information brief McGahey, D. 2016 Climate change, ecosystem services and adaptation in East Africa’s semi-arid regions: Early diagnostics of critical knowledge gaps for landscape conservation.    
Information brief Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D. and Angula, M. N. 2016 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.   GSDR brief
Journal article Cundill, G., Harvey, B., Tebboth, M., Cochrane, L., Currie-Alder, B., Vincent, K., Lawn, J., Nicholls, R. J., Scodanibbio, L., Prakash, A., New, M., Wester, P., Leone, M., Morchain, D., Ludi, E., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Khan, A. and Landry, M. 2018 Large-scale transdisciplinary collaboration for adaptation research: Challenges and insights. Global Challenges, 1700132.  
Journal article Deshpande, T., Michael, K. and Bhaskara, K. 2018 Barriers and enablers of local adaptive measures: A case study of Bengaluru’s informal settlement dwellers. Local Environment, DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2018.1555578. Information brief
Journal article Few, R. and Tebboth, M. G. L. 2018 Recognising the dynamics that surround drought impacts. Journal of Arid Environments, 157: 113-115. Summary; Information brief
Journal article Few, R., Morchain, D., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Bendapudi, R. 2017 Transformation, adaptation and development: Relating concepts to practice. Palgrave Communications, 3: 17092. Summary
Journal article Gajjar, S. P., Singh, C. and Deshpande, T. 2018 Tracing back to move ahead: A review of development pathways that constrain adaptation features. Climate and Development. Summary
Journal article McGahey, D. J. and Lumosi, C. K. 2018 Information brief    
Journal article Morchain, D., Prati, G., Kelsey, F. and Ravon, L. 2015 Summary    
Journal article Ofoegbu, C., New, M. G. and Kibet, S. 2018 The effect of inter-organisational collaboration networks on climate knowledge flows and communication to pastoralists in Kenya. Sustainability, 10(11): 4180.  
Journal article Rao, N. 2019 From abandonment to autonomy: Gendered strategies for coping with climate change, Isiolo County, Kenya. Geoforum, 102: 27-37. Presentation
Journal article Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D., and Angula, M. N. 2017 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Climate and Development. Information brief
Journal article Singh, C. 2017 Using life histories to understand temporal vulnerability to climate change in highly dynamic contexts. SAGE Research Methods Cases. Summary; Manual
Journal article Singh, C. 2019 Migration as a driver of changing household structures: Implications for household livelihoods and adaptation. Migration and Development. Summary
Journal article Singh, C., Daron, J., Bazaz, A., Ziervogel, G., Spear, D., Krishnaswamy, J., Zaroug, M. and Kituyi, E. 2018 The utility of weather and climate information for adaptation decision-making: Current uses and future prospects in Africa and India. Climate and Development, 10(5): 389-405. Summary; Video
Journal article Spear, D. and Chappel, A. 2018 Livelihoods on the edge without a safety net: The case of smallholder crop farming in north-central Namibia. Land, 7(3): 79. Summary
Journal article Totin, E., Butler, J. R., Sidibé, A., Partey, S., Thornton, P. K. and Tabo, R. 2018 Can scenario planning catalyse transformational change? Evaluating a climate change policy case study in Mali. Futures, 96: 44-56. Summary
Journal article Totin, E., Segnon, A. C., Schut, M., Affognon, H., Zougmoré, R. B., Rosenstock, T., and Thornton, P. K. 2018 Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 10(6): 1990. Summary
Photo essay Leavy, J. 2017 MIRAA: Subsistence, stimulant and social glue.    
Photo essay Leavy, J. 2018 Changing aspirations and the realities of climate change adaptation for the young people in Ethiopia and Kenya.    
Journal article Conway, D., Nicholls. R.J., Brown, S., Tebboth, M. G. L., Adger, N., Bashir, A., Biemans, H., Crick, F., Lutz, A. F., de Campos, R. S., Said, M., Singh, C., Zaroug, M. A. H., Ludi, E., New, M. and Wester, F. 2019 Recognising the need for bottom-up assessments of climate risks and adaptation in climate-sensitive regions.    
Publication in progress Duraisamy, V., Mugari, E., Segnon, A. C., Togarepi, C., Tesfaye, M., Alare, R. S. and Misra, G. _ Landsat-based land use / land cover mapping and cross-site analysis at South Asia and Africa.    
Publication in progress Few, R., Satyal, P. and Tebboth, M. G. L. _ Using a justice/ capabilities framing to understand people's vulnerability and adaptive capacity in the drylands of East Africa.    
Publication in progress Few, R., Singh, C., Spear, D., Tebboth, M., Davies, J., Thompson-Hall, M. and Muhvich, K. _ The role of culture as a barrier and enabler to adaptation in semi-arid lands.    
Publication in progress Hegga, S. and Kunamwene, I. _ Mapping actor influence in climate adaptation practices: The case of north-central Namibia.   Poster
Publication in progress Hegga, S., Kunamwene, I. and Ziervogel, G. _ Local participation in decentralised water governance: Insights from north-central Namibia.   Presentation
Publication in progress Kibet, S. and Wasonga, O. _ Making community wildlife conservancies sustainable.    
Publication in progress Kibet, S., Wasonga, O., Satyal, P., Rao, N. and Zewdie, A. _ Perceptions on governance and knowledge flow on effective adaptation to climate changes within community-based conservancies in Kenya.    
Publication in progress Krishnaswamy, J., Bunyan, M., New, M., Bazaz, A., Wolski, P. and Daron, J. _ Are semi-arid regions in Africa and Asia climate-change hotspots?    
Publication in progress Maharjan, A., de Campos, R. S. Das, S., Srinivas, A., Bhuiyan, M. R. A., Ishaq, S., Shrestha, K., Dilshad, T., Umar, M. A., Bhadwal, S., Ghosh, T., Singh, C., Suckall, N. and Vincent. K. _ Migration and adaptation in the context of environmental change: Lessons from interdisciplinary work in South Asia.    
Publication in progress Mulwa, C. and Visser, M. _ Weather uncertainty and demand for information in agricultural technology adoption: Case study from Namibia.    
Publication in progress Perez, T. _ The power of workshop fatigue in transdisciplinary partnerships.   Summary
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Basu, R. and Singh C. I. _ Exploring the interface between climate change and migration: Evidence from India.    
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Singh, C. and Bazaz A. _ Climate change in urban areas: Differential vulnerability and adaptive actions in Bangalore.    
Publication in progress Rao, N. and Leavy, J. _ Domestic water, health and wellbeing: Gendered trade-offs in times of scarcity. Evidence from East Africa.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Mishra, A., Prakash, A., Singh, C., Qaisrani, A., Poonacha, P., Vincent, K. and Bedelian, C. _ Women’s agency and adaptive capacity in climate change hotspots: A qualitative comparative analysis from Asia and Africa.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Singh, C., Solomon, D., Camfield, L., Alare, R. S., Angula, M., Poonacha P., Sidibe, A. and Lawson, E. _ Managing risk, changing aspirations and household dynamics: Implications for wellbeing and adaptation in semi-arid Africa and India.   Summary; Presentation
Publication in progress Rao, N., Wasonga, O., Kibet, S. and A. Mizinova. _ Gendered conflict and cooperation in the context of pastoral vulnerabilities.    
Publication in progress Salifu, A., Lawson, E. and Wrigley-Asante, C. _ Social differentiation and adaptive responses adopted by farmers in a water scarce landscape: The case of groundnut farmers in the Lawra and Nandom Districts.   Poster
Publication in progress Satyal, P., Budds, J., Few, R., Bahir, A., Kibet, S. _ Adaptation to climate change in the context of decentralisation: Exploring multi-level governance of water-related issues in semi-arid areas of East Africa.   Presentation
Publication in progress Scodanibbio, L. _ What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project?    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Sanga. U., Rajiv. P. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Translating mental models into system dynamics models for analyzing food security.    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Totin, E. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Analysing consensus building in the participatory scenario process: A case of transformative scenario process in Mali.    
Publication in progress Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Ansah, P. and Mensah, A. _ Opening up the methodological toolkit on climate change vulnerability and adaptation research: Reflections from using life history approaches.    
Publication in progress SK, N. _ Situating vulnerability in climate change adaptation research: Insights from India and Ghana.    
Publication in progress SK, N., Bazaz, A., Mensah, A., Scodanibbio, L., Tebboth, M., Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Rao, R., Badiger, S., Rao, N., Kibet, S., Wasonga, O. and Spear, D. _ Socially-differentiated vulnerability and adaptation practice in Africa and India.    
Publication in progress Solomon, D. and Badiger, S. _ The evolution of vulnerability: Rethinking the scope of indicator-based assessments in agrarian socio-ecological systems.    
Journal article Spear, D., Selato, J. C., Mosime, B. and Nyamwanza, A. 2019 Harnessing diverse knowledge and belief systems to adapt to climate change in semi-arid rural Africa.   Summary; Presentation
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R., Assen, M. and Degefu, M. _ Valuing Prosopis juliflora? Analysing ecosystem service narratives to understand environmental management dilemmas.    
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Singh, C., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. _ The role of mobility in changing livelihood trajectories: Implications for vulnerability and adaptation in semi-arid regions.   Summary
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. _ Governance of resources: Is there space for implementing the land policy under complex customary tenure practices?   Presentation
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A., Thompson-Hall, M. and Olabisi, L. _ Achieving sustainable future objectives under uncertain conditions: Application of a reflexive framework to adaptation trajectories in rural Mali.   Summary
Publication in progress Wasonga, O., Kibet, S., Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R. _ Do wildlife conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of local communities? Perspectives from northern Kenya.    
Publication in progress Ziervogel, G., Satyal, P., Basu, R., Mensah, A. and Singh, C. _ Vertical integration for climate change adaptation in the water sector: Lessons from decentralisation in Africa and India.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Changing ecosystem services are increasing people’s vulnerability in semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Collaborative research consortia are complex, but have great potential.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Effective adaptation means different things to different people.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Forward-looking inclusive governance arrangements across different scales are a critical enabler for adaptation    
Report ASSAR 2019 Enhanced knowledge systems are critical for climate change adaptation.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Gender is one of many social factors influencing responses to climate change.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Global warming of 1.5°C and higher brings profound challenges to semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Mobility is an inherent dynamic among vulnerable populations.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Participatory processes build adaptive capacity and agency and can help transform systems.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Putting people at the centre can enable effective adaptation in semi-arid regions: Insights from ASSAR.   Summary
Report ASSAR 2019 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid Kenya.    
Report Nkemelang, T., Bouwer, R., Hoffman, T., and New, M. 2018 Determining what global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for the semi-arid regions of Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Mali, Kenya and Ethiopia: A description of ASSAR’s methods of analysis.    
Report Rokitzki, M. and Morchain, D. 2015 Climate change adaptation practice in semi-arid regions: Views and insights by practitioners.    
Report Tebboth, M. G. L. and Few, R. 2018 Considering the future of Prosopis: Participatory Scenario Analysis in Afar, Ethiopia.    
Report Tebboth, M. G. L. and Few, R. 2018 Considering the future of the rangelands: Participatory Scenario Analysis in Isiolo, Kenya.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2015 Spotlight on Adaptation Futures.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on learning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on wellbeing.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on champions.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on water.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on capacity building.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on Transformative Scenario Planning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2019 Spotlight on Research for Impact.    
Thesis Bridges, K. 2017 The role of climate information and advisory services in drought resiliency: A comparative case study in Tamil Nadu, India. Master's thesis. Oxford University.  
Thesis Gitonga, Z. _ Leveraging climate information, improved adaptive technology and migration to build resilience and reduce vulnerability of rural communities to climate risks in arid and semi-arid lands. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Mulwa, C. _ Managing vulnerability to risks in smallholder farming: Essays on sustainable agricultural intensification and climate change adaptation in developing countries. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Nkemelang, T. 2018 Temperature and precipitation extremes under current, 1.5 and 2.0 degree global warming above pre-industrial levels and implications for climate change vulnerability: Botswana case study. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Sajith, S. 2017 Changing cropping patterns and its implications on household food security and nutrition. Master's thesis. TERI School of Advanced Studies.  
Thesis Yidana, A. A. 2016 Social differentiation in the vulnerability and adaptation patterns among smallholder farmers: Evidence from north western Ghana. Master's thesis. University of Ghana.  
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2016 Climate adaptation resource guide for dryland & semi-arid areas. [Resource Guide]    
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Heat stress: How does one recognise heat stress? What should you do when a person suffers from heat stress? [Pamphlet]   Poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Planning for a harsher future. [Brochure]   English poster; Oshiwambo brochure; Oshiwambo poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR, Oxfam, University of Cape Town 2019 Massive Open Online Course on Research for Impact. [MOOC]    
Toolkit/guide Davies, J., Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. 2018 Conducting life history interviews: A how-to guide. [Manual]    
Toolkit/guide Hegde, G., Singh, C. and Kaur, H. 2018 Adaptation as innovation: Lessons from smallholder farmers in rainfed Karnataka. [Information Booklet]   Kannada booklet
Toolkit/guide Morchain, D. and Kelsey, F. 2016 Finding ways together to build resilience: The Vulnerability and Risk Assessment methodology. [Toolkit] Oxfam. Poster
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR Theory of Change.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for Africa and Asia.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for East Africa.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Introducing ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Understanding gender in the context of climate and development.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Research-into-Use in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Transformative Scenario Planning in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Does climate information help people address current and future climate risks?    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning to understand climate change.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Farming Juggle.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Paying for Predictions.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Seasonal Forecast.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Vulnerability Walk.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Small Opportunities Grant: Migration.    
Video ASSAR 2018 From cows to camels: How pastoralists are adapting to climate change in Kenya’s drylands.    
Video ASSAR 2018 How thinking about the future improved farming practices in Ghana’s Upper West region.    
Video ASSAR 2018 Nature on rampage.    
Video ASSAR 2018 Theatre of the oppressed: Adaptation futures 2018.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Challenging predominant views on climate change with Theatre of the Oppressed. Delft, Cape Town. January 2019.    
Video ATREE 2019 Is an increase in green cover good?    
Video ATREE 2019 Wells and a lack of wellbeing.    
Web article Cundill, G. 2017 ASSAR–R2A Climate Month: Time’s Up. Research to Action. 4 December 2017.  
Web article DeMaria-Kinney, J. 2017 Introduction to Research-into-Use at ASSAR. Research to Action. 9 November 2017.  
Web article Joubert, L. 2018 African small-scale farmers need more than just land to survive climate change. The Namibian. 31 May 2018. Use and communication of climate information to support uptake of adaptation action in the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.
Working paper Bazaz, A., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Scodanibbio, L. and Koduganti Venkata, M. 2019 Enabling research-practice collaboration: Models and approaches    
Working paper Degefu, M. A., Assen, M. and McGahey, D. 2018 Climate variability and impact in ASSAR’s East African region.    
Working paper Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Mensah, A. and Spear, D. 2016 Transformation in adaptation: Learning from ASSAR’s regional diagnostic studies.    
Working paper Few, R., Satyal P., Assen M., Camfield L., Leavy J. and McGahey D. 2018 The development-adaptation spectrum in dryland East Africa: mapping risks, responses and critical questions for social research.    
Working paper Few, R., Satyal, P., McGahey, D., Leavy, J., Budds, J., Assen, M., Camfield, L., Loubser, D., Degefu, M. A. and Bewket, W. 2015 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the semi-arid regions of East Africa.    
Working paper Koelle, B., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Harvey, B., van Aalst, M., Rigg, S., Ward, N. and Steenbergen, M. _ A guide to effective collaboration and learning in consortia: Building resilience to rising climate risks. Original publication by Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED).  
Working paper Misquitta, K. and Thatte, K. 2018 Whose appropriate technology? Understanding the adoption of micro-irrigation in the face of climate and policy uncertainty.    
Working paper Phadtare, A., Banerjee, S. and Bendapudi, R. 2019 Are changes in land use land cover influencing gender dynamics in semi-arid areas.    
Working paper Prakash, A., Cundill, G., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Nathe, N., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Mishra, A., Morchain, D., Piryani, A., Soumelong Ehode, L., and Sukla, D. 2019 Climate change adaptation research for impact. CARIAA Working Paper no. 22. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Working paper Scodanibbio, L. 2017 What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project? Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR).  
Working paper Singh, C., Urquhart, P. and Kituyi, E. 2016 From pilots to systems: Barriers and enablers to scaling up the use of climate information services in smallholder farming communities.    
Working paper Zaroug, M., New, M. and Lennard, C. 2019 Climate change in African countries at 1.5 and 2.0 degrees: Variation by geography, aridity and continentality.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Does knowledge enhance adaptive capacities in semi-arid regions? Perspectives from ASSAR's work.