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India consists of a diverse set of ecosystems with a range of risks, climatic and non-climatic exposures, differential vulnerability profiles, and various institutional regimes. The country is complex, with multi-hazard environments and climate change hotspots. Negative impacts on key rural production systems like agriculture and forestry are already evident, and a range of losses and impacts across agricultural, water and forest-based systems are projected for the future. Major livelihood transitions are expected to take place along the rural-urban continuum, coupled with increasing urbanisation. A significant proportion of the population lives in extreme poverty and is highly vulnerable to both everyday risks and the impacts of extreme events. The country also faces serious institutional and governance challenges, compounded by contested growth dynamics, rural-urban migration, and fluxes in the historically-established formal and informal sectors. These dynamics will combine to create pockets of risk where concentrations of historical and emergent challenges are amplified by climatic variability.

Maharashtra State is vulnerable to many of the risks detailed above, not least because of its challenges related to groundwater availability and management. The state is mostly semi-arid (73% of its geographic area is classified as such), and houses about a quarter of India’s drought-prone districts. More than 30% of the state falls within a rain shadow, which suffers from scanty and erratic precipitation. In addition, continued overexploitation of groundwater has led to depleting aquifer stocks and falling water levels, which threaten the sustainability of agricultural economies built on the basis of groundwater irrigation. Groundwater is not uniformly available across the region and a disaggregated typology of groundwater, derived on the basis of aquifer settings, is an important consideration for groundwater management strategies.

The Maharashtra Groundwater Development and Management Bill of 2009 is the Maharashtra state government’s initiative to regulate groundwater. It prohibits the drilling of deep wells, places restrictions on withdrawal of water from existing deep wells, and contains provisions for levying cess. It also requires that tubewell owners and drilling contractors are registered, and that contractors obtain permission before drilling a tubewell. However, implementation of the regulations has been a challenge.

The Watershed Organisation Trust, a non-governmental organisation that has been actively working with communities in Maharashtra for the past 25 years, engages in developmental activities in the areas of natural resources management, watershed development, and climate change adaptation. From 2014 to 2018, as part of ASSAR, WOTR’s team of researchers and practitioners worked with multiple stakeholders, including farmers, local village-level elected representatives, government functionaries (state and district level), and other research organisations, to develop strategies to bolster the resilience of farmers and rural households to climate risks, while strengthening local-level water management initiatives, including groundwater management.

Agricultural growth in semi-arid regions is largely dependent on groundwater. Depleting groundwater levels put the agrarian economy of the entire semi-arid region at serious risk. Raising farmer awareness about water management through effective communication, especially about groundwater use, is a crucial step towards implementing rules and regulations for groundwater management.

Building people’s adaptive capacities in Maharashtra requires understanding differential vulnerabilities to climate risks and capacities among the different social (castes) and farmer (based on land ownership) categories. This understanding can be used to inform and develop local-level livelihood adaptation strategies. At the same time, the needs and aspirations of people in these different social and demographic categories need to be taken into account when preparing local adaptation and development plans.

Heat stress in the peak summer months is increasingly affecting people’s health and livelihoods. Many factors influence vulnerability to heat stress, including age, pre-existing health conditions, occupation, and housing type. State- and local-level heat action plans that address the needs of rural and urban populations, are vital. Communities should also be made more aware of heat stress so that people can take adequate precautions.

Despite there being a number of government and private Information Communication Technology initiatives in India aimed at supporting farmers, farmer access to usable information on weather and climate risks, and agro-advisories remains a challenge. There is also ambiguity around whether the available information meets farmer requirements. A dynamic and responsive agro-met advisory system, that provides demand-driven, and location- and crop-specific information, can help to better manage climate risks and support adaptation.

Click here for more detail, and ASSAR's specific recommendations for policy, practice, and research

Country partners and contact details

Ramkumar Bendapudi (rbendapudi@yahoo.com), Watershed Organisation Trust
Daniel Morchain (danielmorchain@gmail.com), Oxfam GB
Colleen Magner (magner@reospartners.com), Reos Partners

Click here to view the regional team members

Related news stories

Adaptation is about people: a new ASSAR video

With a strong focus on understanding the factors that enhance or diminish people's vulnerability and wellbeing, and the responses they take to deal with both climatic and non-climatic stressors, ASSAR focused on the most marginalised.

Related outputs







Book chapter Bendapudi, R., Kumbhar, N., Gaikwad, P. and Lobo, C. 2019 Agro-met services and farmer responsiveness to advisories: Implications for climate-smart agriculture. In: W. L. Filho (ed.) Handbook of climate change resilience. Cham: Springer. Poster
Book chapter D’Souza, M., Rao, B. and Awashi, S. 2016 Community-driven vulnerability assessment and resilience building: Cases from development contexts. Managing the increasing heat stress in rural areas. In: W. L. Filho (ed.) Handbook of Climate Change Resilience. Cham: Springer.
Book chapter Sami, N. 2017 Multi-level climate change planning: Scale, capacity and the ability for local action. In: S. Moloney, H. Fuenfgeld and M. Granberg (eds.) Local Action on Climate Change. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 92-110.  
Book chapter Sami, N. 2018 Localising environmental governance in India: Mapping urban institutional structures. In A. Luque-Ayala, H. A. Bulkeley and S. Marvin (eds.) Rethinking Urban Transitions: Politics in the Low Carbon City. London, UK: Routledge (chapter).  
Book chapter Shaibu, M. T., Alhassan, S. I., Avornyo, F. K., Lawson, E. T., Mensah, A. and Gordon, C. 2019 Perceptions and determinants of the adoption of indigenous strategies for adaptation to climate change: Evidence from smallholder livestock farmers in north-west Ghana. In: J. K. Kuwornu (ed.) Climate Change and Sub-Saharan Africa: The vulnerability and adaptation of food supply chain factors. Vernon Press, pp. 229-249.  
Book chapter Singh, C . _ Of borewells and bicycles: The gendered nature of water access in Kolar, Karnataka and its implications on local adaptive capacity. In: A. Hans, N. Rao, A. Prakash and A. Patel (eds.) En-gendering Climate Change: Learnings from South Asia. New Delhi, India: Routledge.  
Brochure/flyer ASSAR 2016 ASSAR adaptation puzzle. [Puzzle]   Brochure
Brochure/flyer Basu, R. and Morchain, D. 2017 On a road trip to find common ground: Can the goals of the private sector be compatible with sustainable development? [Comic]    
Brochure/flyer D’Souza, M. and Misquitta, K. 2018 From me to we...from mine to ours! A story of how motivation changes people’s perceptions and drives community action. [Story of Change]    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Challenging assumptions about gender and climate adaptation.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Dreaming of a better life: Let’s recognise and value people’s changing aspirations.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Gender is one of many factors that influence how we are impacted by and respond to climate change.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Household relationships help determine whether and how we can – or can’t – respond to pressures.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 In semi-arid regions, women are not necessarily victims or powerless: They are often diversifying their livelihoods and increasing their agency.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Multiscale governance: The paradox of top-down policy design.   French infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Sometimes our interventions can lead to unintended consequences: A well does not always lead to wellbeing.    
Information brief Adiku, P. and Khan, A. 2018 Migration in climate change hotspots: Opportunities and challenges for adaptation. Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Information brief ASSAR 2015 Planning for climate change in the semi-arid regions of India.    
Information brief ASSAR 2015 South Asia regional diagnostic study: Report summary.    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 How can we better understand and manage the impacts of droughts?    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 Key findings from ASSAR’s regional diagnostic study & initial research: Sangamner sub-region, Maharashtra.    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 What is Transformative Scenario Planning?    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Do conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of communities? Perspectives from ASSAR’s work in Kenya.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 The gendered challenges of food security: Stories and lessons from ASSAR.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 What will global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C above pre-industrial levels mean for semi-arid regions?    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Women, work and adaptive capacity.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 A focus on wellbeing can link adaptation to outcomes that matter to people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Adaptation is about people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Does villagisation enhance the adaptive capacity of pastoralist communities? Perspectives from ASSAR's work in Ethiopia.    
Information brief Bosworth, B., Hegga, S. and Ziervogel, G. 2018 When participation is not enough: Lessons from decentralised water governance in Namibia.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Climate adaptation policy.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Understanding migration in India.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Understanding vulnerabilities using a hotspot approach. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA)  
Information brief Few, R. 2017 Drought does not work alone.    
Information brief Few, R., Singh, C., Spear, D., Davies, J., Tebboth, M. G. L., Sidibe, A, Mensah, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. 2018 When adaptation barriers and enablers intersect: Key considerations for adaptation planning drawn from ASSAR’s findings.    
Information brief Lumosi, C. and McGahey, D. 2016 Communicating climate change for adaptation: Challenges, successes and future priorities.    
Information brief Michael, K., Singh, C., Deshpande, T. and Bazaz, A. 2017 Dimensions of vulnerability in rural and urban areas: A case of migrants in Karnataka.    
Information brief Pradyumna, A., Bendapudi, R., Zade, D. and D’Souza, M. 2018 Health vulnerability to heat stress in rural communities of the semi-arid regions of Maharashtra, India.    
Information brief Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D. and Angula, M. N. 2016 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.   GSDR brief
Information brief Singh, C., Michael, K. and Bazaz, A. 2017 Barriers and enablers to climate adaptation: Evidence from rural and urban India.    
Information brief Tasgaonkar, P., D’Souza, M., Bendapudi, R. and Jacobs, C. 2018 Vulnerability to heat stress: A case study of Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India.    
Information brief Thomas, R. and Duraisamy, V. 2017 Vulnerability to groundwater drought in semi-arid areas of western Ahmednagar District, India.   Marathi information brief
Journal article Cundill, G., Harvey, B., Tebboth, M., Cochrane, L., Currie-Alder, B., Vincent, K., Lawn, J., Nicholls, R. J., Scodanibbio, L., Prakash, A., New, M., Wester, P., Leone, M., Morchain, D., Ludi, E., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Khan, A. and Landry, M. 2018 Large-scale transdisciplinary collaboration for adaptation research: Challenges and insights. Global Challenges, 1700132.  
Journal article Deshpande, T., Michael, K. and Bhaskara, K. 2018 Barriers and enablers of local adaptive measures: A case study of Bengaluru’s informal settlement dwellers. Local Environment, DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2018.1555578. Information brief
Journal article Duraisamy, V., Bendapudi, R., and Jadhav, A. 2018 Identifying hotspots in land use land cover change and the drivers in a semi-arid region of India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190: 535. Summary
Journal article Few, R. and Tebboth, M. G. L. 2018 Recognising the dynamics that surround drought impacts. Journal of Arid Environments, 157: 113-115. Summary; Information brief
Journal article Few, R., Morchain, D., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Bendapudi, R. 2017 Transformation, adaptation and development: Relating concepts to practice. Palgrave Communications, 3: 17092. Summary
Journal article Gajjar, S. P., Singh, C. and Deshpande, T. 2018 Tracing back to move ahead: A review of development pathways that constrain adaptation features. Climate and Development. Summary
Journal article McGahey, D. J. and Lumosi, C. K. 2018 Information brief
Journal article Michael, K., Deshpande, T. and Ziervogel, G. 2018 Examining vulnerability in a dynamic urban setting: The case of Bangalore’s interstate migrant waste pickers. Climate and Development. Summary; Information brief
Journal article Morchain, D., Prati, G., Kelsey, F. and Ravon, L. 2015 Summary
Journal article Ramarao, M. V. S., Sanjay, J., Krishnan, R., Mujumdar, M., Bazaz, A. and Revi, A. 2018 On observed aridity changes over the semiarid regions of India in a warming climate. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. Summary
Journal article Rao, B., Nazareth, D., Awasthi, S., Bendapudi, R. and D’Souza, M. 2019 Assessing differential vulnerability of communities in the agrarian context in two districts of Maharashtra, India. Climate and Development.  
Journal article Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D., and Angula, M. N. 2017 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Climate and Development. Information brief
Journal article Singh, C. 2017 Using life histories to understand temporal vulnerability to climate change in highly dynamic contexts. SAGE Research Methods Cases. Summary; Manual
Journal article Singh, C. 2019 Migration as a driver of changing household structures: Implications for household livelihoods and adaptation. Migration and Development. Summary
Journal article Singh, C., Daron, J., Bazaz, A., Ziervogel, G., Spear, D., Krishnaswamy, J., Zaroug, M. and Kituyi, E. 2018 The utility of weather and climate information for adaptation decision-making: Current uses and future prospects in Africa and India. Climate and Development, 10(5): 389-405. Summary; Video
Journal article Singh, C., Deshpande, T. and Basu, R. 2017 How do we assess vulnerability to climate change in India? A systematic review of literature. Regional Environmental Change, 17(2): 527-538. Summary
Journal article Singh, C., Rahman, A., Srinivas, A. and Bazaz, A. 2018 Risks and responses in rural India: Implications for local climate change adaptation action. Climate Risk Management, 21: 52-68. Summary; Information brief
Journal article Solomon, D. S. and Rao, N. 2018 Wells and wellbeing in South India. Economic & Political Weekly, 53(17). Infographic; Information brief
Journal article Spear, D. and Chappel, A. 2018 Livelihoods on the edge without a safety net: The case of smallholder crop farming in north-central Namibia. Land, 7(3): 79. Summary
Journal article Thomas, R. and Duraisamy, V. 2018 Hydrogeological delineation of groundwater vulnerability to droughts in semi-arid areas of western Ahmednagar district. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 21(2): 121-137. Summary; English information brief; Marathi information brief
Journal article Totin, E., Butler, J. R., Sidibé, A., Partey, S., Thornton, P. K. and Tabo, R. 2018 Can scenario planning catalyse transformational change? Evaluating a climate change policy case study in Mali. Futures, 96: 44-56. Summary
Journal article Totin, E., Segnon, A. C., Schut, M., Affognon, H., Zougmoré, R. B., Rosenstock, T., and Thornton, P. K. 2018 Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 10(6): 1990. Summary
Photo essay Deshpande, T. and Michael, K. 2017 High and dry.    
Publication in progress Ashwathi. V. K., Badiger, S., Krishnaswamy, J. and Bunyan, M. _ Implications of future climate and land use/land cover change on catchment water budgets in Moyar-Bhavani sub-basin.   Poster
Journal article Conway, D., Nicholls. R.J., Brown, S., Tebboth, M. G. L., Adger, N., Bashir, A., Biemans, H., Crick, F., Lutz, A. F., de Campos, R. S., Said, M., Singh, C., Zaroug, M. A. H., Ludi, E., New, M. and Wester, F. 2019 Recognising the need for bottom-up assessments of climate risks and adaptation in climate-sensitive regions.    
Publication in progress Duraisamy, V., Mugari, E., Segnon, A. C., Togarepi, C., Tesfaye, M., Alare, R. S. and Misra, G. _ Landsat-based land use / land cover mapping and cross-site analysis at South Asia and Africa.    
Publication in progress Few, R., Singh, C., Spear, D., Tebboth, M., Davies, J., Thompson-Hall, M. and Muhvich, K. _ The role of culture as a barrier and enabler to adaptation in semi-arid lands.    
Publication in progress Hegde, G., Sasidharan, S. and Bazaz, A. _ Traditional knowledge systems and the role of knowledge brokers, in India.   Poster
Publication in progress Hegga, S. and Kunamwene, I. _ Mapping actor influence in climate adaptation practices: The case of north-central Namibia.   Poster
Publication in progress Hegga, S., Kunamwene, I. and Ziervogel, G. _ Local participation in decentralised water governance: Insights from north-central Namibia.   Presentation
Publication in progress Kibet, S. and Wasonga, O. _ Making community wildlife conservancies sustainable.    
Publication in progress Krishnaswamy, J., Bunyan, M., New, M., Bazaz, A., Wolski, P. and Daron, J. _ Are semi-arid regions in Africa and Asia climate-change hotspots?    
Publication in progress Maharjan, A., de Campos, R. S. Das, S., Srinivas, A., Bhuiyan, M. R. A., Ishaq, S., Shrestha, K., Dilshad, T., Umar, M. A., Bhadwal, S., Ghosh, T., Singh, C., Suckall, N. and Vincent. K. _ Migration and adaptation in the context of environmental change: Lessons from interdisciplinary work in South Asia.    
Publication in progress Mascarenhas, K., Bhargava, V. and Bazaz, A. _ Advocating green infrastructure based development for resilience planning: Bengaluru case study.    
Publication in progress Michael, K., Deshpande, T. and Bhaskara, K. _ The political economy of climate change and vulnerability in a neo-liberal city: A case of Bengaluru's informal settlements.   Summary
Publication in progress Mulwa, C. and Visser, M. _ Weather uncertainty and demand for information in agricultural technology adoption: Case study from Namibia.    
Publication in progress Perez, T. _ The power of workshop fatigue in transdisciplinary partnerships.   Summary
Publication in progress Pillai, S. and Bendapudi, R. _ Inclusion of local aspirations in village development plans in Maharashtra.    
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Basu, R. and Singh C. I. _ Exploring the interface between climate change and migration: Evidence from India.    
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Singh, C. and Bazaz A. _ Climate change in urban areas: Differential vulnerability and adaptive actions in Bangalore.    
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Singh, C. and Srinivas, A. _ Mobility along the rural-urban continuum around a large Indian metropolis: Implications for climate adaptation.    
Publication in progress Ramarao, M. V. S., Sanjay, J., Krishnan, R., Mujumdar, M., Bazaz, A. and Revi, A. _ Projected changes in aridity over India using high resolution CORDEX South Asia climate simulations.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Mishra, A., Prakash, A., Singh, C., Qaisrani, A., Poonacha, P., Vincent, K. and Bedelian, C. _ Women’s agency and adaptive capacity in climate change hotspots: A qualitative comparative analysis from Asia and Africa.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Singh, C., Solomon, D., Camfield, L., Alare, R. S., Angula, M., Poonacha P., Sidibe, A. and Lawson, E. _ Managing risk, changing aspirations and household dynamics: Implications for wellbeing and adaptation in semi-arid Africa and India.   Summary; Presentation
Publication in progress Salifu, A., Lawson, E. and Wrigley-Asante, C. _ Social differentiation and adaptive responses adopted by farmers in a water scarce landscape: The case of groundnut farmers in the Lawra and Nandom Districts.   Poster
Publication in progress Satyal, P., Budds, J., Few, R., Bahir, A., Kibet, S. _ Adaptation to climate change in the context of decentralisation: Exploring multi-level governance of water-related issues in semi-arid areas of East Africa.   Presentation
Publication in progress Scodanibbio, L. _ What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project?    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Sanga. U., Rajiv. P. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Translating mental models into system dynamics models for analyzing food security.    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Totin, E. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Analysing consensus building in the participatory scenario process: A case of transformative scenario process in Mali.    
Publication in progress Singh, C. and Basu, R. _ Moving in and out of vulnerability: Interrogating migration as an adaptation strategy along a rural urban continuum in India.   Summary
Journal article Singh, C., Solomon, D., Bendapudi, R., Kuchimanchi, B., Iyer, S. and Bazaz, A. 2019 Examining barriers and enablers to adaptation in semi-arid India.    
Publication in progress Singh, C., Solomon, D., Bendapudi, R., Kuchimanchi, B., Iyer, S. and Bazaz, A. _ What shapes vulnerability and risk management in semi-arid India? Moving towards an agenda of sustainable adaptation.   Summary
Publication in progress Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Ansah, P. and Mensah, A. _ Opening up the methodological toolkit on climate change vulnerability and adaptation research: Reflections from using life history approaches.    
Publication in progress Sinha, B. and Bendapudi, R. _ Identifying differential vulnerabilities of rural communities in semi-arid region of Maharashtra through a wellbeing approach.   Poster
Publication in progress SK, N. _ Situating vulnerability in climate change adaptation research: Insights from India and Ghana.    
Publication in progress SK, N., Bazaz, A., Mensah, A., Scodanibbio, L., Tebboth, M., Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Rao, R., Badiger, S., Rao, N., Kibet, S., Wasonga, O. and Spear, D. _ Socially-differentiated vulnerability and adaptation practice in Africa and India.    
Publication in progress Solomon, D. and Badiger, S. _ The evolution of vulnerability: Rethinking the scope of indicator-based assessments in agrarian socio-ecological systems.    
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R., Assen, M. and Degefu, M. _ Valuing Prosopis juliflora? Analysing ecosystem service narratives to understand environmental management dilemmas.    
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Singh, C., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. _ The role of mobility in changing livelihood trajectories: Implications for vulnerability and adaptation in semi-arid regions.   Summary
Publication in progress Thomas, R. and Mascarenhas, K. _ Changing groundwater regimes and geosystem services of Nagawara catchment, Bengaluru district.    
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. _ Governance of resources: Is there space for implementing the land policy under complex customary tenure practices?   Presentation
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A., Thompson-Hall, M. and Olabisi, L. _ Achieving sustainable future objectives under uncertain conditions: Application of a reflexive framework to adaptation trajectories in rural Mali.   Summary
Publication in progress Wasonga, O., Kibet, S., Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R. _ Do wildlife conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of local communities? Perspectives from northern Kenya.    
Publication in progress Yaduvanshi, A., Nkemelang, T., New, M. and Bendapudi, R. _ Impacts of 1.5 and 2 degree global temperature rise on temperature and rainfall extremes across India.    
Publication in progress Yaduvanshi, A., Zaroug, M., Bendapudi, R. and New, M. _ Regional impacts of 1.5 and 2 degree global temperature rise on different states of India.   Poster
Publication in progress Ziervogel, G., Satyal, P., Basu, R., Mensah, A. and Singh, C. _ Vertical integration for climate change adaptation in the water sector: Lessons from decentralisation in Africa and India.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Changing ecosystem services are increasing people’s vulnerability in semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Collaborative research consortia are complex, but have great potential.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Effective adaptation means different things to different people.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Forward-looking inclusive governance arrangements across different scales are a critical enabler for adaptation    
Report ASSAR 2019 Enhanced knowledge systems are critical for climate change adaptation.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Gender is one of many social factors influencing responses to climate change.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Global warming of 1.5°C and higher brings profound challenges to semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Mobility is an inherent dynamic among vulnerable populations.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Participatory processes build adaptive capacity and agency and can help transform systems.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Putting people at the centre can enable effective adaptation in semi-arid regions: Insights from ASSAR.   Summary
Report ASSAR 2019 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid Maharashtra, India.    
Report Kale, E., Khabiya, P. and Joshi, V. 2018 Using Transformative Scenario Planning to think critically about the future of water in rural Jalna, India.    
Report Rokitzki, M. and Morchain, D. 2015 Climate change adaptation practice in semi-arid regions: Views and insights by practitioners.    
Report Poonacha, P. and Koduganti, M. 2017 Thinking critically about the future of water security in Bengaluru, India using Transformative Scenario Planning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2015 Spotlight on Adaptation Futures.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on learning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on wellbeing.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on champions.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on water.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on capacity building.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on Transformative Scenario Planning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2019 Spotlight on Research for Impact.    
Thesis Bridges, K. 2017 The role of climate information and advisory services in drought resiliency: A comparative case study in Tamil Nadu, India. Master's thesis. Oxford University.  
Thesis Gitonga, Z. _ Leveraging climate information, improved adaptive technology and migration to build resilience and reduce vulnerability of rural communities to climate risks in arid and semi-arid lands. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Mulwa, C. _ Managing vulnerability to risks in smallholder farming: Essays on sustainable agricultural intensification and climate change adaptation in developing countries. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Nkemelang, T. 2018 Temperature and precipitation extremes under current, 1.5 and 2.0 degree global warming above pre-industrial levels and implications for climate change vulnerability: Botswana case study. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Sajith, S. 2017 Changing cropping patterns and its implications on household food security and nutrition. Master's thesis. TERI School of Advanced Studies.  
Thesis Yidana, A. A. 2016 Social differentiation in the vulnerability and adaptation patterns among smallholder farmers: Evidence from north western Ghana. Master's thesis. University of Ghana.  
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2016 Climate adaptation resource guide for dryland & semi-arid areas. [Resource Guide]    
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Heat stress: How does one recognise heat stress? What should you do when a person suffers from heat stress? [Pamphlet]   Poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Planning for a harsher future. [Brochure]   English poster; Oshiwambo brochure; Oshiwambo poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR, Oxfam, University of Cape Town 2019 Massive Open Online Course on Research for Impact. [MOOC]    
Toolkit/guide Davies, J., Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. 2018 Conducting life history interviews: A how-to guide. [Manual]    
Toolkit/guide Hegde, G., Singh, C. and Kaur, H. 2018 Adaptation as innovation: Lessons from smallholder farmers in rainfed Karnataka. [Information Booklet]   Kannada booklet
Toolkit/guide Morchain, D. and Kelsey, F. 2016 Finding ways together to build resilience: The Vulnerability and Risk Assessment methodology. [Toolkit] Oxfam. Poster
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR Theory of Change.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for Africa and Asia.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for India.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Introducing ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Understanding gender in the context of climate and development.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Climate change in the semi-arid regions of India - Warli animation.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Research-into-Use in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Transformative Scenario Planning in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Does climate information help people address current and future climate risks?    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning to understand climate change.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Farming Juggle.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Paying for Predictions.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Seasonal Forecast.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Vulnerability Walk.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Use and communication of climate information to support uptake of adaptation action in the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.    
Working paper Basu, R. and Bazaz, A. 2016 Assessing climate change risks and contextual vulnerability in urban areas of semi-arid India: The case of Bangalore.    
Working paper Bazaz, A., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Scodanibbio, L. and Koduganti Venkata, M. 2019 Enabling research-practice collaboration: Models and approaches    
Working paper Bendapudi, R., Yadav, A., Chemburkar, S., D’Souza, M. and Thomas, R. 2019 Adaptation or maladaptation: Case of farm ponds converted into storage tanks in Maharashtra: Implications for groundwater governance.   Poster
Working paper Chaturvedi, R., Bazaz, A., Shashikala, V., Krishnaswamy, J., Badiger, S., Bunyan, M., Sanjay, J. and Mujumdar, M. 2018 Regional climate messages for South Asia.    
Working paper D’Souza, M., Rao, K. B., Awasthi, S., Nazareth, D. and Bendapudi, R. 2017 Identifying climate risks and assessing differential vulnerability of communities in Ahmednagar and Aurangabad Districts of Maharashtra.    
Working paper Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Mensah, A. and Spear, D. 2016 Transformation in adaptation: Learning from ASSAR’s regional diagnostic studies.    
Working paper Koelle, B., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Harvey, B., van Aalst, M., Rigg, S., Ward, N. and Steenbergen, M. 2019 A guide to effective collaboration and learning in consortia: Building resilience to rising climate risks. Original publication by Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED).  
Working paper Misquitta, K. and Thatte, K. 2018 Whose appropriate technology? Understanding the adoption of micro-irrigation in the face of climate and policy uncertainty.    
Working paper Phadtare, A., Banerjee, S. and Bendapudi, R. 2019 Are changes in land use land cover influencing gender dynamics in semi-arid areas.    
Working paper Pradyumna, A., Bendapudi, R., Zade, D. and D’Souza, M. 2018 Heat stress – vulnerability, health impacts, and coping strategies in rural communities in the semi-arid region of Maharashtra, India.    
Working paper Prakash, A., Cundill, G., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Nathe, N., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Mishra, A., Morchain, D., Piryani, A., Soumelong Ehode, L., and Sukla, D. 2019 Climate change adaptation research for impact. CARIAA Working Paper no. 22. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Working paper Revi, A., Bazaz, A., Krishnaswamy, J., Bendapudi, R., D’Souza, M. and Pahwa Gajjar, S. 2015 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid areas in India.    
Working paper Scodanibbio, L. 2017 What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project? Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR).  
Working paper Singh, C., Gajjar, S. P. and Deshpande, T. 2016 Policies, projects and people: Exploring the adaptation-development spectrum in India.    
Working paper Singh, C., Urquhart, P. and Kituyi, E. 2016 From pilots to systems: Barriers and enablers to scaling up the use of climate information services in smallholder farming communities.    
Working paper Zaroug, M., New, M. and Lennard, C. 2019 Climate change in African countries at 1.5 and 2.0 degrees: Variation by geography, aridity and continentality.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Does knowledge enhance adaptive capacities in semi-arid regions? Perspectives from ASSAR's work.