Jump to: ASSAR's focus in Botswana | Key insights | Country partners & contact details | News stories | Outputs

Semi-arid regions like eastern Botswana are highly dynamic systems that experience variable and sometimes extreme climates, adverse environmental change, and a relative paucity of and decline in natural resources. Historically, people living in these regions have adopted several coping mechanisms to deal with these conditions. Today, however, many communities exhibit low levels of adaptive capacity due to challenges such as marginalisation, underdevelopment, poverty, inequality, weak governance, maladaptive policies, and increasing population growth. Climate change is expected to augment existing levels of vulnerability as temperatures rise, rainfall decreases, and seasonal climate patterns become more variable.

From 2014-2018, ASSAR’s Botswana team worked in the Bobirwa sub-district of the country to better understand these existing and upcoming challenges. In the last year of the project, we expanded our Vulnerability and Risk Assessment work to Mahalapye (Central District) and to Chobe District. Made up of a team of researchers and practitioners from the University of Botswana, here

Read the full report here

Key insights

Botswana is one of the countries in Africa that will experience the most extreme changes in temperature and precipitation under global warming scenarios of 1.5°C-3°C above pre-industrial levels. These changes will have significant negative impacts on agriculture and other water-dependent sectors. There is an urgent need for communities and government to respond to climate change with measures that will build resilience and enhance wellbeing.

In recent years, there have been adverse changes in the quantity, quality, distribution and timing of certain ecosystem services due to increasing human pressure and climate change impacts. As dependence on and access to ecosystem services varies by gender, men and women are affected differently by these ecosystem changes. Ecosystem services need to be sustainably and equitably managed through improved monitoring and restrictions on harvesting. Access to alternative livelihood options should also be enhanced.

To increase the use of seasonal climate forecasts by people with different values, customs and belief systems, meteorological and place-based climate information need to be integrated through participatory processes with traditional and religious leaders. Forecasts should also be tailored and communicated in a way that is relevant and understandable to farmers, and should include information on what actions farmers should take.

Climate change is causing the frequency, severity, duration and spatial extent of droughts to increase. Yet, institutionally, drought and climate change are managed separately. There is a lack of coordination among departments responsible for drought management, and responses are largely reactive and crisis-driven. While emergency drought response does have an important role to play in drought management, a more proactive and integrated approach is needed to build the longer-term resilience of vulnerable people, ecosystems and the economy.

Grassroots stakeholders have equally valuable contributions to make as those in positions of power in policy, planning and vulnerability assessment processes. Multi-sector and multi-scalar participatory processes that enable collaborative planning and engagement with and between representative and marginalised stakeholders are thus important for ensuring that climate change responses are legitimate, effective, and tailored to the realities of various social groups.

Click here for more detail, and ASSAR's specific recommendations for policy, practice, and research

Country partners and contact details

Hillary Masundire* (MASUNDH@mopipi.ub.bw), University of Botswana
Mark New (mark.new@uct.ac.za), University of Cape Town
Daniel Morchain (danielmorchain@gmail.com), Oxfam GB
Colleen Magner (magner@reospartners.com), Reos Partners

Click here to view the regional team members

Related news stories

Adaptation is about people: a new ASSAR video

With a strong focus on understanding the factors that enhance or diminish people's vulnerability and wellbeing, and the responses they take to deal with both climatic and non-climatic stressors, ASSAR focused on the most marginalised.

From sceptic to ardent advocate

Hillary Masundire describes how ASSAR turned him from being a sceptic of the research-into-use process to an ardent advocate.

Related outputs







Book chapter D’Souza, M., Rao, B. and Awashi, S. 2016 Community-driven vulnerability assessment and resilience building: Cases from development contexts. Multi-level climate change planning: Scale, capacity and the ability for local action. In: S. Moloney, H. Fuenfgeld and M. Granberg (eds.) Local Action on Climate Change. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 92-110.
Book chapter Shaibu, M. T., Alhassan, S. I., Avornyo, F. K., Lawson, E. T., Mensah, A. and Gordon, C. 2019 Perceptions and determinants of the adoption of indigenous strategies for adaptation to climate change: Evidence from smallholder livestock farmers in north-west Ghana. In: J. K. Kuwornu (ed.) Climate Change and Sub-Saharan Africa: The vulnerability and adaptation of food supply chain factors. Vernon Press, pp. 229-249.  
Brochure/flyer ASSAR 2016 ASSAR adaptation puzzle. [Puzzle]   Brochure
Brochure/flyer Basu, R. and Morchain, D. 2017 On a road trip to find common ground: Can the goals of the private sector be compatible with sustainable development? [Comic]    
Brochure/flyer D’Souza, M. and Misquitta, K. 2018 From me to we...from mine to ours! A story of how motivation changes people’s perceptions and drives community action. [Story of Change]    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Challenging assumptions about gender and climate adaptation.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Dreaming of a better life: Let’s recognise and value people’s changing aspirations.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Gender is one of many factors that influence how we are impacted by and respond to climate change.   Oshiwambo infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Household relationships help determine whether and how we can – or can’t – respond to pressures.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 In semi-arid regions, women are not necessarily victims or powerless: They are often diversifying their livelihoods and increasing their agency.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Multiscale governance: The paradox of top-down policy design.   French infographic
Infographic ASSAR 2018 Sometimes our interventions can lead to unintended consequences: A well does not always lead to wellbeing.    
Infographic ASSAR 2018 What global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for Botswana.    
Information brief Adiku, P. and Khan, A. 2018 Migration in climate change hotspots: Opportunities and challenges for adaptation. Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Information brief ASSAR 2015 Planning for climate change in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa.    
Information brief ASSAR 2015 Southern Africa regional diagnostic study: Report summary.    
Information brief ASSAR 2015 Understanding vulnerability and adaptation in semi-arid areas in Botswana.    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 How can we better understand and manage the impacts of droughts?    
Information brief ASSAR 2016 What is Transformative Scenario Planning?    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Adapting to climate change in semi-arid Botswana: ASSAR’s key findings.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Do conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of communities? Perspectives from ASSAR’s work in Kenya.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 The gendered challenges of food security: Stories and lessons from ASSAR.    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 What will global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C above pre-industrial levels mean for semi-arid regions?    
Information brief ASSAR 2018 Women, work and adaptive capacity.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 A focus on wellbeing can link adaptation to outcomes that matter to people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Adaptation is about people.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 Does villagisation enhance the adaptive capacity of pastoralist communities? Perspectives from ASSAR's work in Ethiopia.    
Information brief ASSAR 2019 What global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for Botswana.    
Information brief Bosworth, B., Hegga, S. and Ziervogel, G. 2018 When participation is not enough: Lessons from decentralised water governance in Namibia.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Climate adaptation policy.    
Information brief CARIAA 2018 Understanding vulnerabilities using a hotspot approach. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA)  
Information brief Few, R. 2017 Drought does not work alone.    
Information brief Few, R., Singh, C., Spear, D., Davies, J., Tebboth, M. G. L., Sidibe, A, Mensah, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. 2018 When adaptation barriers and enablers intersect: Key considerations for adaptation planning drawn from ASSAR’s findings.    
Information brief Lumosi, C. and McGahey, D. 2016 Communicating climate change for adaptation: Challenges, successes and future priorities.    
Information brief Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D. and Angula, M. N. 2016 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.   GSDR brief
Journal article Cundill, G., Harvey, B., Tebboth, M., Cochrane, L., Currie-Alder, B., Vincent, K., Lawn, J., Nicholls, R. J., Scodanibbio, L., Prakash, A., New, M., Wester, P., Leone, M., Morchain, D., Ludi, E., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Khan, A. and Landry, M. 2018 Large-scale transdisciplinary collaboration for adaptation research: Challenges and insights. Global Challenges, 1700132.  
Journal article Deshpande, T., Michael, K. and Bhaskara, K. 2018 Barriers and enablers of local adaptive measures: A case study of Bengaluru’s informal settlement dwellers. Local Environment, DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2018.1555578. Information brief
Journal article Few, R., Morchain, D., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Bendapudi, R. 2017 Transformation, adaptation and development: Relating concepts to practice. Palgrave Communications, 3: 17092. Summary
Journal article Gajjar, S. P., Singh, C. and Deshpande, T. 2018 Tracing back to move ahead: A review of development pathways that constrain adaptation features. Climate and Development. Summary
Journal article McGahey, D. J. and Lumosi, C. K. 2018 Information brief
Journal article Morchain, D., Prati, G., Kelsey, F. and Ravon, L. 2015 Summary
Journal article Morchain, D., Ziervogel, G., Spear, D., Masundire, H., Angula, M., Davies, J., Hegga, S. and Molefe C. 2019 Building transformative capacity in southern Africa: Surfacing knowledge through participatory Vulnerability and Risk Assessments. Action Research, 17(1): 19-41. Summary
Journal article Mugari, E., Masundire, H., Bolaane, M. and New, M. 2018 Perceptions of ecosystem services provision performance in the face of climate change among communities in Bobirwa sub-district, Botswana. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management. Presentation
Journal article Nkemelang, T., New, M. and Zaroug, M. 2018 Temperature and precipitation extremes under current, 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming above pre-industrial levels over Botswana, and implications for climate change vulnerability. Environmental Research Letters, 13(6): 065016. Infographic
Journal article Rao, N., Lawson, E. T., Raditloaneng, W. N., Solomon, D., and Angula, M. N. 2017 Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: Insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Climate and Development. Information brief
Journal article Singh, C. 2017 Using life histories to understand temporal vulnerability to climate change in highly dynamic contexts. SAGE Research Methods Cases. Summary; Manual
Journal article Singh, C. 2019 Migration as a driver of changing household structures: Implications for household livelihoods and adaptation. Migration and Development. Summary
Journal article Singh, C., Daron, J., Bazaz, A., Ziervogel, G., Spear, D., Krishnaswamy, J., Zaroug, M. and Kituyi, E. 2018 The utility of weather and climate information for adaptation decision-making: Current uses and future prospects in Africa and India. Climate and Development, 10(5): 389-405. Summary; Video
Journal article Spear, D. and Chappel, A. 2018 Livelihoods on the edge without a safety net: The case of smallholder crop farming in north-central Namibia. Land, 7(3): 79. Summary
Journal article Totin, E., Butler, J. R., Sidibé, A., Partey, S., Thornton, P. K. and Tabo, R. 2018 Can scenario planning catalyse transformational change? Evaluating a climate change policy case study in Mali. Futures, 96: 44-56. Summary
Journal article Totin, E., Segnon, A. C., Schut, M., Affognon, H., Zougmoré, R. B., Rosenstock, T., and Thornton, P. K. 2018 Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 10(6): 1990. Summary
Journal article Ziervogel, G. 2018 Poster
Publication in progress Hegga, S., Kunamwene, I. and Ziervogel, G. _ Local participation in decentralised water governance: Insights from north-central Namibia.   Presentation
Publication in progress Kibet, S. and Wasonga, O. _ Making community wildlife conservancies sustainable.    
Publication in progress Krishnaswamy, J., Bunyan, M., New, M., Bazaz, A., Wolski, P. and Daron, J. _ Are semi-arid regions in Africa and Asia climate-change hotspots?    
Publication in progress Maharjan, A., de Campos, R. S. Das, S., Srinivas, A., Bhuiyan, M. R. A., Ishaq, S., Shrestha, K., Dilshad, T., Umar, M. A., Bhadwal, S., Ghosh, T., Singh, C., Suckall, N. and Vincent. K. _ Migration and adaptation in the context of environmental change: Lessons from interdisciplinary work in South Asia.    
Publication in progress Mulwa, C. and Visser, M. _ Weather uncertainty and demand for information in agricultural technology adoption: Case study from Namibia.    
Publication in progress Perez, T. _ The power of workshop fatigue in transdisciplinary partnerships.   Summary
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Basu, R. and Singh C. I. _ Exploring the interface between climate change and migration: Evidence from India.    
Publication in progress Rahman, A., Singh, C. and Bazaz A. _ Climate change in urban areas: Differential vulnerability and adaptive actions in Bangalore.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Mishra, A., Prakash, A., Singh, C., Qaisrani, A., Poonacha, P., Vincent, K. and Bedelian, C. _ Women’s agency and adaptive capacity in climate change hotspots: A qualitative comparative analysis from Asia and Africa.    
Publication in progress Rao, N., Singh, C., Solomon, D., Camfield, L., Alare, R. S., Angula, M., Poonacha P., Sidibe, A. and Lawson, E. _ Managing risk, changing aspirations and household dynamics: Implications for wellbeing and adaptation in semi-arid Africa and India.   Summary; Presentation
Publication in progress Salifu, A., Lawson, E. and Wrigley-Asante, C. _ Social differentiation and adaptive responses adopted by farmers in a water scarce landscape: The case of groundnut farmers in the Lawra and Nandom Districts.   Poster
Publication in progress Satyal, P., Budds, J., Few, R., Bahir, A., Kibet, S. _ Adaptation to climate change in the context of decentralisation: Exploring multi-level governance of water-related issues in semi-arid areas of East Africa.   Presentation
Publication in progress Scodanibbio, L. _ What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project?    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Sanga. U., Rajiv. P. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Translating mental models into system dynamics models for analyzing food security.    
Publication in progress Sidibe, A., Totin, E. and Olabisi, L. S. _ Analysing consensus building in the participatory scenario process: A case of transformative scenario process in Mali.    
Publication in progress Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Ansah, P. and Mensah, A. _ Opening up the methodological toolkit on climate change vulnerability and adaptation research: Reflections from using life history approaches.    
Publication in progress SK, N. _ Situating vulnerability in climate change adaptation research: Insights from India and Ghana.    
Publication in progress SK, N., Bazaz, A., Mensah, A., Scodanibbio, L., Tebboth, M., Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Rao, R., Badiger, S., Rao, N., Kibet, S., Wasonga, O. and Spear, D. _ Socially-differentiated vulnerability and adaptation practice in Africa and India.    
Publication in progress Solomon, D. and Badiger, S. _ The evolution of vulnerability: Rethinking the scope of indicator-based assessments in agrarian socio-ecological systems.    
Journal article Spear, D., Selato, J. C., Mosime, B. and Nyamwanza, A. 2019 Harnessing diverse knowledge and belief systems to adapt to climate change in semi-arid rural Africa.   Summary; Presentation
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R., Assen, M. and Degefu, M. _ Valuing Prosopis juliflora? Analysing ecosystem service narratives to understand environmental management dilemmas.    
Publication in progress Tebboth, M. G. L., Singh, C., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. _ The role of mobility in changing livelihood trajectories: Implications for vulnerability and adaptation in semi-arid regions.   Summary
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A. and Thompson-Hall, M. _ Governance of resources: Is there space for implementing the land policy under complex customary tenure practices?   Presentation
Publication in progress Totin, E., Sidibe, A., Thompson-Hall, M. and Olabisi, L. _ Achieving sustainable future objectives under uncertain conditions: Application of a reflexive framework to adaptation trajectories in rural Mali.   Summary
Publication in progress Wasonga, O., Kibet, S., Tebboth, M. G. L., Few, R. _ Do wildlife conservancies enhance the adaptive capacity of local communities? Perspectives from northern Kenya.    
Publication in progress Ziervogel, G., Satyal, P., Basu, R., Mensah, A. and Singh, C. _ Vertical integration for climate change adaptation in the water sector: Lessons from decentralisation in Africa and India.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Changing ecosystem services are increasing people’s vulnerability in semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Collaborative research consortia are complex, but have great potential.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Effective adaptation means different things to different people.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Forward-looking inclusive governance arrangements across different scales are a critical enabler for adaptation    
Report ASSAR 2019 Enhanced knowledge systems are critical for climate change adaptation.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Gender is one of many social factors influencing responses to climate change.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Global warming of 1.5°C and higher brings profound challenges to semi-arid regions.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Mobility is an inherent dynamic among vulnerable populations.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Participatory processes build adaptive capacity and agency and can help transform systems.    
Report ASSAR 2019 Putting people at the centre can enable effective adaptation in semi-arid regions: Insights from ASSAR.   Summary
Report ASSAR 2019 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid Botswana.    
Report Masundire, H., Morchain, D., Raditloaneng, N., Hegga, S., Ziervogel, G., Molefe, C., Angula, M. and Omari, K. 2016 Vulnerability and risk assessment in Botswana’s Bobirwa sub-district: Fostering people-centred adaptation to climate change.    
Report Molefe, C. 2016 Preparing for Transformative Scenario Planning in Botswana.    
Report Molefe, C. and Masundire, H. 2016 Climate change vulnerability and risk analysis in the Bobirwa sub-district, Botswana: Towards improving livelihood adaptation to climate – Short report.    
Report Molefe, C. and Moesi, M. 2016 Identifying stakeholders and vulnerabilities in Botswana’s Mahalapye sub-district.    
Report Nkemelang, T., Bouwer, R., Hoffman, T., and New, M. 2018 Determining what global warming of 1.5°C and higher means for the semi-arid regions of Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Mali, Kenya and Ethiopia: A description of ASSAR’s methods of analysis.    
Report Perez, T., Molefe, C. and Masundire, H. 2018 Using Transformative Scenario Planning as a way to think differently about the future of land use in Bobirwa, Botswana.   seTswana report
Report Rokitzki, M. and Morchain, D. 2015 Climate change adaptation practice in semi-arid regions: Views and insights by practitioners.    
Report Perez, T. 2017 Using Transformative Scenario Planning to think critically about the future of water for productive use in Omusati, Namibia.   Report
Report Tebboth, M. G. L. and Few, R. 2018 Considering the future of the rangelands: Participatory Scenario Analysis in Isiolo, Kenya.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2015 Spotlight on Adaptation Futures.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on learning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2016 Spotlight on wellbeing.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on champions.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2017 Spotlight on water.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on capacity building.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2018 Spotlight on Transformative Scenario Planning.    
Spotlight ASSAR 2019 Spotlight on Research for Impact.    
Thesis Bridges, K. 2017 The role of climate information and advisory services in drought resiliency: A comparative case study in Tamil Nadu, India. Master's thesis. Oxford University.  
Thesis Davies, J. 2016 Exploring the factors and actors that contribute to the co-production of climate adaptation plans: A comparison of three municipalities in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Gitonga, Z. _ Leveraging climate information, improved adaptive technology and migration to build resilience and reduce vulnerability of rural communities to climate risks in arid and semi-arid lands. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Jubase, P. _ Analysis of extreme weather events over the Limpopo and Botswana region: Synoptic systems of heat wave events and extreme hot days. Master’s thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Mosime, B. 2018 The use of traditional weather forecasting by agro-pastoralists of different social groups in Bobirwa sub-district, Botswana. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Mugari, E. _ Vulnerability and responses to recent changes in the natural environment / ecosystem services of Bobirwa, Botswana. PhD thesis. University of Botswana. Poster
Thesis Mulwa, C. _ Managing vulnerability to risks in smallholder farming: Essays on sustainable agricultural intensification and climate change adaptation in developing countries. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Nkemelang, T. 2018 Temperature and precipitation extremes under current, 1.5 and 2.0 degree global warming above pre-industrial levels and implications for climate change vulnerability: Botswana case study. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Omari, K. _ Drought management in Botswana. PhD thesis. University of Cape Town.  
Thesis Sajith, S. 2017 Changing cropping patterns and its implications on household food security and nutrition. Master's thesis. TERI School of Advanced Studies.  
Thesis Selato, J. C. 2017 Credibility and scale as barriers to uptake and use of seasonal climate forecasts in Bobirwa Sub-District, Botswana. Master's thesis. University of Cape Town. Presentation
Thesis Yidana, A. A. 2016 Social differentiation in the vulnerability and adaptation patterns among smallholder farmers: Evidence from north western Ghana. Master's thesis. University of Ghana.  
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2016 Climate adaptation resource guide for dryland & semi-arid areas. [Resource Guide]    
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Heat stress: How does one recognise heat stress? What should you do when a person suffers from heat stress? [Pamphlet]   Poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR 2018 Planning for a harsher future. [Brochure]   English poster; Oshiwambo brochure; Oshiwambo poster
Toolkit/guide ASSAR, Oxfam, University of Cape Town 2019 Massive Open Online Course on Research for Impact. [MOOC]    
Toolkit/guide Davies, J., Singh, C., Tebboth, M. G. L., Spear, D., Mensah, A. and Ansah, P. 2018 Conducting life history interviews: A how-to guide. [Manual]    
Toolkit/guide Hegde, G., Singh, C. and Kaur, H. 2018 Adaptation as innovation: Lessons from smallholder farmers in rainfed Karnataka. [Information Booklet]   Kannada booklet
Toolkit/guide Morchain, D. and Kelsey, F. 2016 Finding ways together to build resilience: The Vulnerability and Risk Assessment methodology. [Toolkit] Oxfam. Poster
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR Theory of Change.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for Africa and Asia.    
Video ASSAR 2015 ASSAR’s animated climate messages for southern Africa.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Introducing ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2015 Understanding gender in the context of climate and development.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Research-into-Use in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2016 Transformative Scenario Planning in ASSAR.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Does climate information help people address current and future climate risks?    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning to understand climate change.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Farming Juggle.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Paying for Predictions.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Seasonal Forecast.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Experiential learning: Vulnerability Walk.    
Video ASSAR 2017 Small Opportunities Grant: Migration.    
Video ASSAR 2018 How thinking about the future improved farming practices in Ghana’s Upper West region.    
Video ASSAR 2018 Theatre of the oppressed: Adaptation futures 2018.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Challenging predominant views on climate change with Theatre of the Oppressed. Delft, Cape Town. January 2019.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Climate change adaptation in Bobirwa sub-district, Botswana.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Using Vulnerability and Risk Assessments to improve climate change adaptation in Bobirwa, Botswana.    
Video ATREE 2019 Is an increase in green cover good?    
Video ATREE 2019 Wells and a lack of wellbeing.    
Web article Cundill, G. 2017 ASSAR–R2A Climate Month: Time’s Up. Research to Action. 4 December 2017.  
Web article DeMaria-Kinney, J. 2017 Introduction to Research-into-Use at ASSAR. Research to Action. 9 November 2017.  
Web article Joubert, L. 2018 A climate of change for cash cows. Mail and Guardian. 18 March 2018.  
Web article Joubert, L. 2018 African small-scale farmers need more than just land to survive climate change. The Namibian. 31 May 2018. Use and communication of climate information to support uptake of adaptation action in the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.
Working paper Bazaz, A., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Scodanibbio, L. and Koduganti Venkata, M. 2019 Enabling research-practice collaboration: Models and approaches    
Working paper Davies, J., Spear, D., Omari, K., Morchain, D., Urquhart, P. and Zaremba, J. 2017 Background paper on Botswana’s draft Drought Management Strategy.    
Working paper Few, R., Bendapudi, R., Mensah, A. and Spear, D. 2016 Transformation in adaptation: Learning from ASSAR’s regional diagnostic studies.    
Working paper Koelle, B., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Harvey, B., van Aalst, M., Rigg, S., Ward, N. and Steenbergen, M. _ A guide to effective collaboration and learning in consortia: Building resilience to rising climate risks. Original publication by Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED).  
Working paper Misquitta, K. and Thatte, K. 2018 Whose appropriate technology? Understanding the adoption of micro-irrigation in the face of climate and policy uncertainty.    
Working paper Phadtare, A., Banerjee, S. and Bendapudi, R. 2019 Are changes in land use land cover influencing gender dynamics in semi-arid areas.    
Working paper Prakash, A., Cundill, G., Scodanibbio, L., Vincent, K., Nathe, N., DeMaria-Kinney, J., Mishra, A., Morchain, D., Piryani, A., Soumelong Ehode, L., and Sukla, D. 2019 Climate change adaptation research for impact. CARIAA Working Paper no. 22. Collaborative Adaptation Research in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).  
Working paper Scodanibbio, L. 2017 What have we learned from working collaboratively on the ASSAR project? Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR).  
Working paper Singh, C., Urquhart, P. and Kituyi, E. 2016 From pilots to systems: Barriers and enablers to scaling up the use of climate information services in smallholder farming communities.    
Working paper Spear, D., Haimbili, E., Angula, M., Baudoin, M., Hegga, S., Zaroug, M. and Okeyo, A. 2015 Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa.    
Working paper Zaroug, M., New, M. and Lennard, C. 2019 Climate change in African countries at 1.5 and 2.0 degrees: Variation by geography, aridity and continentality.    
Video ASSAR 2019 Does knowledge enhance adaptive capacities in semi-arid regions? Perspectives from ASSAR's work.